TODAY - Sat, Feb 16, 2019
ojfia mqj;a           ishu ojfia mqj;a
Feb 16, 2019 12:02 pm
miq.sh Èkj, fndfyda l;dnyg ,lajQ flfkla ;uhs wdjd l,a,sfha kdhlfhl= nj ye
je ia;r
Feb 15, 2019 11:37 pm
md;d, kdhl udl÷f¾ uOqIa iuÛ vqndhs ys§ w;awvx.=jg .ekqK
je ia;r
Feb 15, 2019 11:32 pm
.=ma; wkdjels m< lrk wkaO ;eke;a;shla jk n,af.aßhdkq cd;sl ,ndnd jx.d,
je ia;r
l,d f.disma         ishu l,d f.disma
Feb 16, 2019 06:10 pm
ksrEmK lafIa;%fhka l,djg meñKs budhd ,shkf.a" fï jkúg fma%laI
je ia;r
Feb 15, 2019 11:47 am
pu;ald ,lañKS m%S IQÜ
je ia;r
Feb 14, 2019 06:46 pm
p;=ßld mSßia lshkafka furg mqxÑ ;srh fukau ߧ ;srf
je ia;r
Feb 14, 2019 04:03 pm
w‍fmdhs keye' myq.sh ld‍f,a uu f,darkaiaf.a ukud,s fõÈld k
je ia;r
Feb 14, 2019 03:45 pm
Wmka Èkh fjkqfjka lsh,d fï j;dfõ úfYaIfhka m%ix.hla mj
je ia;r

FOR ANY SEASON YOUR EYES GLAMOUR

How do you make sure you've got the best shadow/liner combination for you? The looks that will really make your eyes pop, that will give you that alluring gaze whether you're at a board meeting or batting your eyelashes over a cocktail glass, are based on your specific eye color and shape. We've put together a primer for you to size up your gorgeous eyes with your color, to get the best possible effect.

   More...
,kafoais md,kfhka iudchg we;s jQ n,mEu
Aug 29, 2018 09:27 am   Views: 22

,kafoais md,kfhka iudchg we;s jQ n,mEu

fIydka ;s,lr;ak
fmardfoKsh úYajúoHd,h'

landasi555




l%s'j' 16 jeks ishjfika miq ,xld b;sydifha ola‌kg ,efnk úfYaI ,la‌IKh jkafka ta jk f;la‌ ,xldjg oeä f,i n,mEï l< bka§h n,mEu l%ula‌ l%ufhka myj heuhs' bkamiq ld,fha§ ,xldj" hqfrdamd cd;Skaf.a n,mEïj,g k;= ùu lemS fmfkk ,la‌IKhls' ta wkqj ms<sfj<ska mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais yd bx.%Sis hk ngysr cd;Skaf.a n,mEïj,g ,xldj k;= fõ' l%s'j' 14" 15" 16 ishjia‌j, hqfrdamfhys fldkaia‌a;ka;sfkdam,a k.rh uq,alr f.k bia‌,dï yd ls;= ne;su;=ka w;r hqoaO ud,djla‌ we;s úh' th l=rei hqoaOh kñka hqfrdamd b;sydifhys ye¢kafõ' tu hqoaOj,ska bia‌,dïjre ch.;a ksid hqfrdamShkag f.dvìñka fmrÈ. yd mej;s iïnkaO;d iSudiys;j fldkafoaisj,g hg;aj isÿlr .ekSug isÿúh' tksid hqfrdamShhka uqyqÿ ud¾. Tia‌fia fmrÈ. yd iïnkaO ùug W;aidy lf<ah' tys m%;sM,hla‌ f,iska l%s'j' 1498 § mD;=.Sis cd;sl jia‌fldao .dud bkaÈhdjg meñKsfha h' thska miqj fmrÈ. ngysr cd;Skag uqyqÿ ud¾.fhka újD; jQfõh'

fmrÈ. rgj,a w;ßka ngysr cd;Skaf.a wjOdkhg ,la‌ jQ úfYaI rgla‌ f,i ,xldj lemS fmfka' tksid fmrÈ. n,h ;yjqre lr .ekSfï ;r.hl fh§ isá ngysr cd;Skag ,xldj ;=< ish wdêm;Hh m;=rjd .ekSu b;d jeo.;a úh' ta wkqj mD;=.Siska tys ,d m<uqj l%shd l< w;r fojkqj ,kafoaiSka Bg W;aiql úh' fufia Tjqkaf.a wdêm;Hhkag ,xldj imqrdu k;= fkdjqK o furg uqyqÿnv m%foaY ish n,hg k;= lr .ekSug Tjqkag yels jQfha h' ,xldfõ uqyqÿnv m%foaY md,kh l< ,kafoaiSka f.ka furg ixia‌lD;shg t,a, jQ n,mEï /ils' foaYSh yqrejlg yev .eiS ;snQ furg iudc - ixia‌lD;sh ngysr cd;Skaf.a hg;aúð;lrKh;a iu.ska ngysrlrKhg ,la‌ jQ nj lsj yelsh' tys§ ,kafoais n,mEï m%Odk fõ' 21 jeks ishji jk úg;a ,xldj ;=< l%shd;aul jk kS;s rduqfõ moku f,i mj;skafka tod ,kafoaiSka y÷kajd ÿka kS;suh rduqj ùu Bg ksoiqkla‌ f,i oela‌úh yelsh' th kï frdau - ,kafoais kS;sh hs'

furg uqyqÿnv ,kafoais md,k ld,h f,i i,lkqfha l%s'j' 1640 - 1796 w;r ld,h hs' tu ld, jljdkqj w;r;=r§ Tjqkg isÿjQfha ;ukag fmr Y; j¾I 1 1$2 lg jeä ld,hla‌ ^l%s'j'1505 - 1640& ,xldfõ uqyqÿnv n,h w,a,d f.k isá mD;=.SiSka ;nd .sh iudÔh yd ixia‌lD;sl kIagdjfYaI u; ;u md,kh o f.k heug h' ,kafoaiSka hqfrdamSh ixia‌lD;shlg ysñlï lshk cd;shls' mD;=.SiSka o tfia h' tksid ,kafoaiSkag mD;=.SiSkag fuka iudc - ixia‌lD;suh jYfhka ;u md,k lghq;= yev.ia‌jd .ekSug wNsfhda.hka t,a, jQ njla‌ fkdfmfka' Tjqka isÿlf<a mD;=.SiSka wkq.ukh l< m%;sm;a;s w;ßka úhoï wvq fldg ,dN ,nd .; yels l%fudamdhka f;dard f.k tajd Tia‌fia ish m%;sm;a;s l%shd;aul lsÍuhs'

,xldfõ uqyqÿnv m%foaYj, l%shd;aul jQ mD;=.Sis md,kh uÛska Bg fmr furg l%shd;aul jQ foaYSh md,k jHqyh fjkia‌ fkdl< kuq;a frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.u je<`o fkd.;a uqo,sjreka yd mqoa.,hka Wiia‌ ;k;=rej,ska my lsÍu isÿ lf<a h' ta wkqj toji Wiia‌ ;k;=re ,nd .ekSug kï frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.ug ne£ ;sîu jeo.;a fldg i,ld ;sfí' furg iudcfha ta jkúg mej;s l=, l%uh imqrdu fjkia‌ fkdl< mD;=.SiSka ;u jdKsc wjYH;d i`oyd l=re`ÿ ;e,Sug wjYH jQ i,d.u l=,fha wh uÈ jQ úg lrdj" yqKq iy mÿ hk l=,j, ck;dj fhdod .ksñka Tjqkaf.a jD;Skaj, fjkila‌ we;s lf<ah' tfy;a tuÛska Tjqkaf.a iudc ;;a;ajh flfrys úYd, n,mEula‌ we;s fkdùh'

mD;=.SiSka úiska furg iudch ;=< ta jkúg frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.u ie,lsh hq;= uÜ‌gulska jHdma; fldg ;snqfKah' úfYaIfhkau frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.u je<`o.;a my;a hEhs iïu; l=,j, ck;djg by< ;k;=re §fuka l=, l%uh hï n,mEulg ,la‌l< ksid m%Yak ygf.k ;sìKs' ;jo kj iudc ixl,am f,i tal Nd¾hhd újdyh" újdy ,shdmÈxÑh ksid nyq Nd¾h yd nyq mqreI fiajkh ke;sùu jeks wx. iudchg tla‌j ;sìKs' mD;=.Sis NdIdj o iudchg yqreù ;snqK ksid ,kafoais iudcfha§ tu NdIdj úúO lghq;= i`oyd fhdod .eKsks' úfYaIfhkau m,a,sfha foaj fufyhg fhdod.kq ,eîh'

mD;=.Sisyq furáka mkakd oud uqyqÿnv m%foaYj, n,h w,a,d .;a ,kafoaiSka j¾I 138 l ld,hla‌ ;u n,h mj;ajd f.k .sfha h' mD;=.Sis iuÛ iei£fï§ ,kafoaiSka hqoaO lsysmhlg muKla‌ fhduq jQ w;r Tjqka iEu úgu W;aiy lf<a úhoï wvq fldg f.k yels ;rï ,dN bmhSug h' mD;=.Siskag jvd l=vd m%foaYhl ish md,kh f.k .sh ,kafoaiSka furg frmrudÿ wd.u irK .sh l=vd m%cdjla‌ ;nd .sfhah' fn!oaO iudch m,a,sj,g hk iudchla‌ njg mßj¾;kh lsÍug W;aiy oerE ,kafoaiSka iudcfha újdy isÿlsÍï yd fn!;Sia‌uh ;=<ska foaYSh iudch ;=< fNao Nskak we;s lf<ah' foaYSh l=, l%uh m%fhdackhg .ekSfuka l=, w;r .egqï we;s flßKs' ñY% újdy je<ela‌ùug mshjr .kq ,eîh' iud.ug fiajdjla‌ ,nd.; yels l=, wkH l=, iuÛ újdy ùu j<ld,sks' i,d.u l=,h fuu kS;sÍ;sj,ska oeäj fmÆKq l=,hla‌ úh' l%sia‌;shdks wd.u je<`o.;a whg úfYaI jrm%ido ysñùu o ,kafoais iudc m%;sm;a;sh ;=< lemS fmfkkakg úh' fn!oaOhl= iu`. újdy jQ fyda újdy ùug isák whl= tlS újdyh wj,x.= lsÍu fyda iïnkaOh w;ayeßh hq;= úh' tfia fkdl< fyd;a th o`vqjï ,eìh yels jrola‌ úh' kuq;a l%sia‌;shdks jqjfyd;a thska ksoyia‌ úh yels úh' ,kafoaiSka lghq;= lf<a foaYSh fn!oAO iudch ,kafoaiSka is;k wdldrfhka l%sia‌;shdkSlrKh jQ iuc ixia‌lD;shla‌ f,i yev.eia‌iSug h'

,kafoais ñY% újdy uÛska we;s jQ ,kais fyj;a n¾. hk ck fldgia‌ ,kafoais ckmo msysgqùfï m%;sM,hla‌ f,i we;s úKs' fï wh mixtie," mestice iy toepassie ^ckjyfrys ;=mamys& hkqfjka o ye¢kajQy ^úf - ;=x." 216 msg&' ,kafoais iuh ;=< ,kafoais NdIdj l;d l< o th n%s;dkH iufha fojeks oYlfha§ Ndú; fkdflfrKs' kuq;a ,kafoais NdIdfjka fndfyda jpk isxy, NdIdjg tl;=j ;sfí' Bg ksoiqka lsysmhla‌ my; mßÈ oela‌úh yelsh'



 

lan



,dxlsl iudchg fudjqka È. l,siu yd È. ceflÜ‌gqj ^Jacker& y`ÿkajd ÿkafkah' msßñka kslfÜ l=vd fkrE /jq,la‌ j¾Okh lf<ah' ,kafoaiSka fiao frÈ wdkhkh l<y' oyy;ajeks Y; j¾Ifha§ uqo%s; rgd iys; lmq frÈ ckm%sh úh ^úu,r;ak" 122 msgqj&' ,kafoais iudch ;=< wdNrK me<£u by< iudcfha ldka;djkag muKla‌ iSud ù ;sî we;' ta nj kd;a fhda.iqkaorï uy;d Tyqf.a lD;sh ;=< fufia úia‌;r fldg we;' The Dutch also regulated the way in
which natives dressed and adorned themselves at
their feasts' Only higher caste women were entitled to
wear jewellery on these occasions'˜ ^Yogasundram"
202 page&

,kafoaiSkaf.a iudc m%;am;a;sh ;=<ska my;rg isxy, yd Wvrg isxy, fNaoh ;j;a j¾Okh jQ nj fmfka' tkï mD;=.Sis md,k iuh ;=< furg uqyqÿnv m%foaYj, mD;=.Sis isß;a úß;a iïm%odhka jHdma; ùu ksid my;rg isxy, ck;dj mD;=.SiSka iu`. iïñY%Kh úh' tksid Tjqka my;a msßila‌ fia ie,lSug Wv/áfhda fm<UqKy' Wv/áhka mD;=.SiSka iu`. iïñY%Kh fkdù foaYSh Ñrd.; iïm%odhka wdrla‌Id lr .ekSug iu;aùu ksid Tjqka ta ms<sn`oj l=, .¾jhlska Wiia‌ cd;shla‌ jYfhka is;Sug fm<ö isáfha h' mD;=.SiSkaf.ka wk;=rej ,kafoaiSkag my;rg uqyqÿnv m%foaY k;= jQ ksid Tjqkaf.a iïm%odhka o my;rg me;sÍ heu fya;=fjka Wvrg my;rg isxy, fNaoh ;jÿrg;a j¾Okh jQ nj meyeÈ,sh'

,kafoaiSkaf.a wd.ñl m%;sm;a;sfhka we;s jQ iudc n,mEu

wdishdjg meñKs uq,au hqfrdamd cd;sh jQ mD;=.SiSkaf.a wruqK l%s'j' 1498 § jia‌flda o .dud bkaÈhdfõ le,slÜ‌ jrdhg f.dvng úg lrk ,oehs oela‌fjk ,wms l%sia‌;shdkSka iy l=¿nvq fidhd meñKsfhuq, hk ft;sydisl m%ldYkfhka meyeÈ,s fõ' ta wkqj mD;=.SiSka wd.ñl wNs,dIhla‌ o fmroeßj fmrÈ.g meñKs njla‌ fmfka' fojkqj wdishdjg msúis ,kafoaiSka o fjf<dao wdêm;H ;uka i;= lr.ekSfï wruqK uq,g ;nd wd.ñl m%;sm;a;sh o l%shd;aul lf<ah' ,fï wkqj fuu fomla‌Ihgu yiq jQ ,dxlsl ck;dj mD;=.SiSkaf.a lf;da,sl wOdk.%dyS;ajhg;a ^Biotry&" ,kafoaiSkaf.a le,aúkajd§ Ofudakaudohg;a ^Fanatism& yiq ù .shy,' ^úu,r;ak" 105 msgqj&

mD;=.SiSkag jvd ,kafoaiSka lf;da,sl - fn!oaO - yskaÿ yd bia‌,dï wd.ïj,g iykYS,S m%;am;a;shla‌ wkq.ukh l< nj fndfyda b;sydi{hkaf.a u;h úh' kuq;a tu wdl,amh jerÈ njg fy<s lf<a uydpd¾ fla' ví,sõ' .=Kj¾Ok uy;d 1990 § l< úYsIag m¾fhaIKh yryd h' ,kafoaiSka lf;da,sl - fn!oaO - yskaÿ yd bia‌,dï wd.ï u¾okh tla‌ l%shdud¾.hla‌ fldg .;af;ah' fï w;ßka jvd;a Wkkaÿ jQfha lf;da,sl wd.u u¾okh lsÍug h' frmrudÿ wd.u jHdma; lsÍug jvd ,kafoAiSka Wkkaÿ jQfha lf;da,sl wd.u u¾okh lsÍug nj fmfka' lf;da,sl wd.u woykakkaf.a .Kk 250"000 la‌ muK hEhs .Kka n,d ;sìKs' m<uqfjkau jerÈ úYajdihla‌ jYfhka i,lk ,o lf;da,sl wd.fuka Tjqkaj uqodf.k ixfYdaê; ksjerÈ wd.ug Tjqka yrjd .ekSfï ia‌jNdúl wdYdjla‌ ,kafoaiSka ;=< mej;sK' ^wßir;akï" 222 msgqj&' l%s'j' 1658 mkjk ,o kS;shlska lf;da,sl mQclhl=g /ljrKh §u " ur”h oKa‌vkh Èh yels jrola‌ njg m%ldY lrk ,§' 1715 mkjk ,o kS;shlska lf;da,slhkag m%isoaêfha fyda ryfia /ia‌ùï meje;aúh fkdyels úh' 1799 furg isá ,kafoais wdKa‌vqldrhd jQ jEkaÍ m%ldY lf<a furg lf;da,sl foajia‌:dk jkid ouk f,i;a tajdfha isák lf;da,slhkag YqoaO jQ frmrudÿ oyu fj;g meñfKk f,i h' uqia‌,sïjrekag o oeä m%;sm;a;shla‌ ,kafoaiSka wkq.ukh lf<ah' fn!oaO" yskaÿ wd.ïj,g o úreoaO m%;sm;a;shla‌ ,kafoaiSka oeÍh' kuq;a th lf;da,sl yd uqia‌,sï wd.ï flfrys oela‌jQ úreoaO;ajh ;rï oeä tlla‌ fkdúKs' 1692 § le,Ksfha fn!oaO W;aij ;ykï lrk ,§' 1732 § m%;sud jkaokh yd ñ;Hd oDIaál mQcd úê ;ykï lf<ah' 1711 § mek jQ kS;shla‌ u`.ska yskaÿ mqo isß;a wkq.ukh lsÍu ;ykï úh' tfy;a fuu ksfhda.h m%dfhda.sl jYfhka id¾:l fkdùh' ^úf - ;=x." 225 msgqj&' 1767 iema;eïn¾ 15 jeks Èk ,kafoais wdKa‌vqldr µka o fuhsvka ksfhda.hla‌ ksl=;a lrñka m%ldY lf<a bßod Èkj,§ o l%sia‌;shdks W;aij Èkj,§ o fjf<daodï lsÍu" l¾udka; lsÍu fyda l=,S jev lsÍu ;ykï njhs' tfia fhÿKq whg ov f.ùu fyda isrf.g hEùu kshu flßKs'

thska ,kafoaiSka wfmala‌Id lf<a fn!oaOhkaf.a fmdah Èkh wd.ñl ksjdvq Èkhla‌ f,i fkdms<s.ekSuhs' ;j o ls;=Kqjl=g muKla‌ bvï m%Odk ,nd.; yels njg;a" jyÆka o ñ,§ f.k ;nd.; yels njg;a ksfhda. ,ndÿKs'

,ta yer" 1676 Tla‌f;dïn¾ ui 16 jeks Èk l< ksfhda.hla‌ wkqj" fm!oa.,sl Kh fkdf.jQ l%sia‌;shdks fkdjQ ia‌;%Ska muKla‌ udxpq oud ismsß f.hs ;eìh yels nj m%ldY úKs ud;r Èia‌;%sla‌lfha jdih l< fn!oaOhkaf.ka muKla‌ ,urd< noao, ^l%sia‌;shdks fkdjQ whl= u< úg Tjqkf.a foam<j,ska 1$3 l noao& wh flßKs' fn!oaOhl= ;u orejd fn!;Sia‌u fkdl< fyd;a tu orejd wjcd;lhl= f,i ie,lSu o foudmshka ls;=kqjka f,i újdy ù fkdue;af;a kï" fyda wju jYfhka foudmshkaf.ka tla‌ whl= fyda ;uka ls;=kqjl= njg Èjqrd ke;s úfgl fyda orejd fn!;sia‌u l< fkdyels njg o ksfhda. mekùh,' ^úu,r;ak" 108 - 109 msgq&'

wOHdmkh o ,kafoais wd.ñl m%;sm;a;sfha w;fldÆjla‌ úh' .ï lsysmhlg frmrudÿ mdi, ne.ska we;s lrk ,§' úIh ud,djg frmrudÿ oyu wksjd¾h úh' fndfyda .=rejre foaj.e;sjre jQy' furg uqyqÿnv l,dmfha ´,kao iufha we;s lr ;snQ fuu mdGYd,d ms<sn|j tÉ' ví,sõ' fldâßkagka ish fmdf;ys ukd jQ ye¢kaùula‌ fufia isÿlr we;' ,.ïno mdGYd,dj, m%Odk jYfhka W.kajk ,oafoa l%sia‌;shdks O¾uh ms<sn| m%Yafkda;a;r yd hdÉ[d .S; o ia‌jNdIdfjka ,sùu yd lshEùu o fõ' yeu mdGYd,djlgu mdfya .=rejreka fofokl=g yd y;r fokl=g w;r .Kkla‌ o mdGYd,d oyhlg tl l;Sfiarejrhl= o ne.ska m;alr ;snqfKa h' ta mdGYd,d ish,a, mßmd,kh lrk ,oafoa mdGYd,d fldñiu ^Scholarchal Commission& kï uKa‌v,fhks''''1788 § l,amsáhg;a fnkaf;dgg;a w;r m%foaYfha ;snqK mdGYd,d .Kk mkia‌ myls' ^fldâßxgka" 157 msgqj&

uqo%Kfha wdOdrh o ,kafoaiSyq wd.u m%pdrhg Wmfhda.S lr .;ay' 1758 jkúg ia‌jNdIdjkaf.ka úúO fmd;a m%pdrh lrk ,§' Bg isxy, hdÉ[d ix.%yhla‌ o o%úv hdÉ[d ix.%yhla‌ o isxy, yd o%úv niska ksl=;a l< kj f;ia‌;fïka;=j o we;=<;a úh' fï yer ,kafoaiSyq hdmkh" .d,a, yd wÆ;a lvh m%foaYj, ,kafoais .Dy ks¾udKhg wkqj frmrudÿ foajia‌:dk bÈl<y' frmrudÿ oyu wÆ;ska je<|.;a whg f,!lsl jrm%ido ,ndÿkay' Tjqkaj úúO Wiia‌ ;k;=rej,g m;a lrk ,§' ta yer iudc fiajd lrk wáfhka o Tjqka wd.u m;=rjd yßk ,§' wkd: orejka i|yd we;s l< uvï o ,dÿre frda.Skag we;s l< ffjoHd.dr wdÈh wd.u m%pdrh lsÍfï udOHhka úh'

mD;=.SiSkaf.a yd ,kafoaiSkaf.a wd.ï w;r we;s fjki

,xldfõ hg;aúð; iuh i,ld ne,Sfï§ furgg meñKs mD;=.SiSka frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyu uq,a lr.;a msßila‌ jQ w;r ,kafoaiSka" m%;sixia‌lrKh jQ frmrudÿ kï kj l%sia‌;shdksh uq,alr .;a cd;shla‌ úh' frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyfï mdma;=ud hkqfjka y÷kajk frdaufha isák w.% kdhl mQcl;=ukaf.a O¾u WmfoaYl;ajh yd wdêm;Hh ms<s.;af;ah' frmrudÿ oyfuys mdma;=udf.a O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh ms<sfkd.kshs'

lf;da,sl oyfï mdma;=ud iuia‌; lf;da,sl f,dalfhau md,k kdhlhd fõ' ìfIdmajre Bg my<ska isá w;r Tjqka Èid md,l Èidm;sjreka úh' Èid md,kh id¾:l lr .ekSug yeu Èidjla‌u l=vd m;a;= fyda jiïj,g fnod ìfIdma;=udf.a wKil hgf;a tajd md,kh lsÍug n%yaupdÍ mQcl msßila‌ o úh' úúO O¾ufoaYl yd iudc fiajd lghq;=j,§ mQcljrekag w;ys; fok meúÈjre rdYshla‌ o lf;da,sl oyfuys isáhy' wjidk jYfhka yeu wd.ñl lghq;a;l§ u mQcl mla‌Ihg wjk; ùu ;u wd.ñl Nla‌;sfha wksjd¾hh wx.hla‌ f,i ie,l+ .sys msßila‌ o fõ' fï wdldrfhka frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyfï wka;¾.;h y÷kd.; yelsh'

lf;da,sl iNdj ;=< 16 jeks ishjfia § isÿ jQ uyd folv ùu fya;=fjka wÆf;ka ìys jQ l%sia‌;shdksh frmrudÿ l%sia‌;shdksh hkqfjka ye¢kafõ ^m%kdkaÿ" 43 msgqj&' lf;da,sl iNdj md,kh l< mdma;=udf.a O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh m%;sla‌fIam lsÍu yd tys m%;sixia‌lrKj§Ndjh fuu oyfuys wka;¾.; úh' ;;ald,Sk frdaudkq iNdj uq,ald,Sk l%sia‌;shdksfhka wE;a ù fkdu`.g yeÍ ;snQ ksid th uq,ald,Sk ia‌rEmhg .ekSu frmrudÿ oyfï wruqK jQfõh' fï oyu ìys lsÍug udáka ¨;¾ kï c¾uka cd;sl mQcljrhd uq,a úh' frmrudÿ l%sia‌;shdksfha m%Odk ,la‌IKh jkafka tys we;=<;a úúO;ajhhs' frdaudkq oyug jvd fuys nyq ksldhslNdjhla‌ ola‌kg ,efí' wdOHd;añl ia‌jdëk;ajh fiùu frmrudÿ ne;su;=kaf.a m%Odk wruqK fõ' tys§ Tjqka mdma;=udf.a O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh fjkqjg nhsn,fha O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh msysgqjd .;af;ah'

foaY.fõIK jHdmdrh weröu;a iu`. mdmajre lf;da,sl rdcHhka Bg Wkkaÿ lrjd frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyu m%pdrKhg W;aiql jQy' tys m%;sM,hla‌ f,iska mD;=.SiSka fmrÈ.g meñ”u ksid ,xldj we;=¿ fmrÈ. f,dalhg lf;da,sl oyu y÷kajdÿks' miqld,Skj foaY.fõIKhg tla‌ jQ ,kafoaiSka o fjf<|du uQ,sl fldgf.k n,h w,a,d .kakd rgj, ;ukaf.a kj wd.ñl o¾Ykhla‌ jQ frmrudÿ oyu jHdma; lsÍug hqyqiq¿ úh' ta wkqj ,xldj ;=< ,kafoais iufha§ ´,kao frmrudÿ iNdj" fm%ia‌ìfÜßhdkq iNdj yd ia‌fldÜ‌,ka; iNdj kñka frmrudÿ wd.ñl iNd we;s úh' ,kafoaiSka ;=< oeä lf;da,sl úfrdaë wdl,am mej;s fyhska Tjqka yeu úgu W;aidy lf<a frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyu wNsNjd frmrudÿ l%sia‌;shdksh yels ;rï m%pdrh lsÍug h'

,kafoaiSkaf.a wd¾:sl m%;sm;a;sfhka jQ iudc n,mEu

furg uqyqÿnv ,kafoais md,k ld,fha§ ù j.djg wu;rj fjf<| fnda. j.djka .ek o ;rul wjOdkhla‌ fhduq ù we;' mD;=.Sis iufha§ jhU yd W;=re È. m%foaYj,g y÷kajd ÿka ÿïfld< j.dj ,kafoaiSka hgf;a ÈhqKq úh' hdmkfha o jeo.;a j.djla‌ f,iska ÿïfld< jeùu wdrïN flßKs' fuu ÿïfld< g%ejkafldrhg ks¾hd; l< w;r" 18 jeks ishji wjidkfha§ u,hdj yd iqud;%dfõ ukd b,aÆula‌ we;s úh' iud.u ÿïfld< i|yd ks¾hd; noaola‌ mekùh ^úf - ;=x." 203 msgqj&' u[af[dla‌ld j.dj o mq¿,a jYfhka jHdma; lrk ,ÿfha ,kafoaiSka h' u,afnß j.dj iy mgmKqjka we;s lsÍu m<uqfjkau ,xldjg y÷kajd fokq ,enqfõ o ,kafoaiSka úisks' tfy;a fiao l¾udka;h t;rï id¾:l jQ njla‌ fkdfmfka'

taldêldÍ wmkhk fnda.hla‌ jYfhka ,kafoaiSka fldams j.dj o wdrïN lrk ,§' 1748 - 49 jirj,ays furg fldams ksIamdokh rd;a;,a 198904 la‌ jQ w;r" th 1755 - 56 jirj,ays § r;a;,a 592250 la‌ ola‌jd by< ke.af.ah ^úf - ;=x." 201 msgqj&' .ïñßia‌ j.dlsÍug ,kafoaiSka wdl¾YkSh f,i m%pdrKhla‌ isÿ lf<ah' fmd,a j.djg o Wkkaÿjla‌ ola‌jd we;' fld<U" ó.uqj wjg fmd,a j.dj ÈhqKq lrk ,§' fmd,a .ia‌ ue§u" wrla‌l= ksIamdok flfrys o wjOdkh fhduq úh'

,,xldfõ jefjk l=re`ÿ" b;d Wiia‌ udye`.s ;;a;ajfha tajd jQ w;r" fjk;a j¾.fha l=re`ÿj,g jvd wvq jYfhka ;=ka .=Khlska ñ, jeä h,' hkqfjka ,skaia‌fpdaka kue;a;d m%ldY fldg ;sfí' ta ,kafoaiSka l=¿nvq jefjk m%foaYj,g ;ukau f.dia‌ tajd ,nd .ekSu i|yd Wkkaÿjla‌ oela‌ùug mgka.;a wjêfha§ h ^wßir;akï" 185 msgqj&' µe,ala‌ wdKa‌vqldrhdf.a ld,fha§ l=re`ÿ jeùug Wkkaÿ úh' fï;dla‌ mej;s úYajdih jQfha lef,a bfí yg.kakd l=re`ÿ jvd w.kd njhs' tfy;a mÍla‌IK meje;a ù fuka jjd .kakd l=re`ÿ jvd w.kd nj jegysKs' µe,ala‌ wdKa‌vqldrhdf.a kshuh mßÈ 1769 § urodfka l=re`ÿ jeùu m%:ufhka mgka .;af;a h' fuys m%;sM,h i;=gqodhl jQfhka fjk;a m%foaYj, o l=re`ÿ jeùu wdrïN úh' l=re`ÿ ms<sn| ;on, kS;s o mkjk ,§' l=re`ÿ me<hla‌ msgrg hEùu .s,av¾ia‌ 1000 l ovhlg hg;a l< yels jrola‌ úh' l=re`ÿ .ia‌ úkdY lsÍu o`vqju urKh úh' l=re`ÿ j.dj Èß .ekaùug ia‌j¾K uqo%sldj kue;s iïudkhla‌ o msßkuk ,§' i,amsá fldarf,a iurisxy uqo,s tfia ia‌j¾K uqo%sldj ,nd.;a j.dlrefjls' ^.=Kj¾Ok" 190 msgqj&' l=re`ÿ ;e,Sug i,d.u l=,h fhdod f.k we;' iEu Yla‌;su;a i,d.u ;reKfhla‌u l=re`ÿ frdí 12 la‌ ,kafoaiSkag iemhsh hq;= úh' kuq;a ta i|yd Tjqkg lsisÿ .dia‌;=jla‌ fkdf.ùh' frdí tlla‌ hkq idudkHfhka rd;a;,a 56 g;a 62 g;a w;r m%udKhls ^,kafoais ñkqï l%uhg wkqj& ^wßir;akï" 189 msgqj&'

,kafoaiSka ù j.djg o úfYaI wjOdkhla‌ fhduq lr ;sfí' ,DUTCH POWER IN CEYLON, kue;s .%ka:fha wdpd¾h iskakmamd wßir;akï uy;d ,kafoaiSkaf.a lDIsl¾u m%;sm;a;sh l%shdjg k`.k ,o wdldrh .ek È.= úu¾Ykhla‌ lr ;sfí' tys fmkajd§ we;s mßÈ ,kafoaiS fyajdhka iy ,kafoaiSkaf.a wdrla‌Idj hgf;a jQ ck;dj i|yd úYd, m%udKfhka fnx.d,fhka o fldruekav,a fjr< wdY%s; m%foaYfhka o lekrd m%foaYfhka o iy,a f.kaùug isÿjQ ksid ,kafoaiSka úiska ù f.dú;ekg m%uqL;ajhla‌ fok ,§' 1658 ka miqj µkayQkaia‌ o ù f.dú;ekg Wkkaÿ úh'

,kafoaiSka hdmkfha lmq j.dj l%udkql+,j werUQy' ol=Kq bkaÈhdfjka frÈ úhkakka f.kajd uvl,mqj" ukakdru yd mq;a;,u hk m%foaYj, frÈ úùu jHdma; lf<ah' i;afldar<fhka yd l,dúfhka fï i|yd wjYH lmq mq¿ka ,nd .;af;a h' ^úf - ;=x." 200 msgqj&' 1746 § fjf<|fmd< mokï jQ m%;sm;a;shla‌ wkq.ukh lrñka ,kafoaiSka uq;= lsñ§u fjkafoais lsÍug ;SrKh lf<ah' 1746 - 1751 ola‌jd ld,h ;=< j.lSulska iy wjodkulska f;drj uq;=j,ska úYd, ,dNhla‌ ,eìK'

,fuu Èjhskg kqÿßka uqyqfoa msysá ukakdru uq;= mrh È.ska ie;mqï 20 la‌ muK o m<,ska ie;mqï 2 la‌ muK o fõ' fuh nU 10 la‌ muK .eUqrh' ful, fuu uq;= mrh ,kafoaiSkag wh;aj ;snqfKah' uq;= lsñfok ld,h meñKs úg wi, rgj, rcjreka yd fjf<kafoda o uq;= ñ,§ ,nd .ekSu i|yd fuys meñfK;s''''uq;= mrfhka lvd .kakd ,o uq;= fn,a,ka fjrf<a f.dv .eiQ miq m;d. tllg fn,a,ka 800 .Kfka úl=Kkq ,efí,' ^IajhsÜ‌i¾" 151 msgqj&

l=re`ÿj,g fukau w,s we;=ka fjf<odu o ;ukaf.a taldêldrhla‌ f,iska ,kafoaiSka ;nd .;ay' w,s we;=ka fjf<|du i|yd hdmkh" .d,a," ukakdru hk ia‌:dkj, fjf<|fmd<j,a ;sìKs' w,s we;=ka fjf<|dfuka ,kafoaiSka ,o ,dNh ms<sn|j ixLHd.; jd¾Isl jd¾;d mjd ola‌jñka bkaÈhdj ;=< furg we;=ka i|yd úYd, b,aÆula‌ mej;s nj;a ,kafoaiSka jeäu wdodhula‌ ,nkakg we;=ka fjf<|d fuka iu;a jQ nj;a wßir;akï uy;d ish fmdf;ys i|yka lr we;' ^wßir;akï" 153 msgqj&' furg§ ,kafoaiSka isÿl< w,s we;=ka fjf<|du ms<sn|j y¾fmdaÜ‌f.a ,xld úia‌;rfhys o fufia oela‌fõ'

,furg j,a w,skaf.ka .ykh''''úYd, f,i w,a,d .kq ,nk fuu i;a;= m¾ishdj iy fjk;a rgj,g úl=Kkq ,efn;a''''1666 j¾Ifha § wmf.a woañrd,a ;ekf.a ksfhda.h mßÈ rg jeishkaf.a wOdrh o we;sj wm úiska we;a .d,lska w,s 96 fofkla‌ w,a,d .kakd ,oy'''',xldfõ we;a;= fjk;a rgj,g f.k .sh l, trgj, we;a;= Wkag ìh fj;s,' ^y¾fmdaÜ‌" 106 msgqj& fï wkqj ,kafoais iufha§ furg w,s we;=ka fjf<|dug ;snQ m%isoaêh ms<sn|j jgyd .; yelsh'

;ukaf.a md,kh hgf;a jk bvïj,ska Wmßu ksIamdokhla‌ ,nd ,dN bmhSug;a" jeishd úiska iud.ug l< hq;= wksjd¾h fiajh ,nd .ekSug;a ,kafoaiSka bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍfï l%uhla‌ mgka .;af;ah' 1675 wfm%A,a ui µka yQkaia‌ ^lksIaG& wdKa‌vqlre o 1740 nerka µka bïfydma wdKa‌vqlre o bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍug lghq;= fh§h' fuys§ mD;=.Sis ld,fha mgka mej;s ,f;daïnq, hkqfjka ye¢ka jQ f,aLk úêu;aj ieliSu woyia‌ flßK' µka fyd,kia‌ wdKa‌vqlre 1745 Tla‌f;daïn¾ 15 od hdkafY%dhsv¾ wdKa‌vqlre foieïn¾ 20 o úf,ïµ,ala‌ wdKa‌vqlre 1766 iema;eïn¾ 05 o f;daïnq ieliSfï kS;sÍ;s iy l%shdj,sh oeälr we;' bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍu ;=<ska wjir we;sj j.d l< bvïj,ska 1$3 noaola‌ o wkjirfhka j.d l< bvïj,ska 1$2 l noaola‌ o wh flßK' fï w;r j;= noao kñka kj noaola‌ o fmd,a" mqjla‌ iy fldia‌ j.d l< bvïj,ska wh flßKs' bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍu uyck;djg mSvdldÍ jQ nj 1760 § iud.ug úreoaOj le/,a,la‌ ygf.k .d,af,a bvï ld¾hd,h" mdi,a yd ;dkdhï .skan;a lsÍfuka fmfka' ,kafoaiSkaf.a wd¾:slh foi ne,Sfï§ Tjqka jeä jYfhka ck;dj mSvdjg m;a lrñka úúOdldrfha nÿ wh l< nj fmfka' ta Tjqkf.a m%Odk wruqK jQ ,dN Wmhd .ekSfï mrud¾:h uqÿkamuqKqjd .ekSu i|ydh' fï wkqj ,kafoaiSkaf.a wd¾:sl m%;sm;a;sh yryd furg w;S; rc oji jQ ia‌jhxfmdaIs; wd¾:sl rgdj ì| jeà wdkhk wmkhk wd¾:sl rgdjlg wjYHjk moku ia‌:djrj iudch ;=< tu hq.fha § ks¾udKh jQfõh'

fï wdldrhg ,xld b;sydifhys jeo.;a mßÉfþohla‌ jk ,kafoais ,xld uqyqÿnv m%foaY md,k ld,h ;=<ska Tjqkaf.a iudc m%;sm;a;sh;a thska ,xld iudchg we;s jQ n,mEu ms<sn|j;a iy Tjqkaf.ka ,o odhdo ms<sn`oj;a fndfyda lreKq idlÉPdjg n`ÿka l< yelsh' ta ta mqoa.,hka fy<k oDIaáfldaK u; furgg meñKs hqfrdamd cd;Skaf.ka ,o odhdohkays hym;a yd whym;a nj wvq jeä fldg idlÉPd lsÍu isÿl< yelsh' by; ola‌jd we;s f;dr;=re wkqj ,kafoais md,k ld,h foi ne¨ úg iuia‌;hla‌ jYfhka tu wjêfha§ furgg iEfyk ;rï iudcuh n,mEï ,enqK njg meyeÈ,s fõ'

wdY%s; .%ka: kdudj,sh

wßir;akï" tia‌' ,xldfõ ,kafoais n,h fld<U^ wOHdmk m%ldYk fomd¾;fïka;=j" 1964'

fldâßxgka' tÉ' ví,sõ' ixla‍Isma; ,xld b;sydih" mß' fla' tia‌' fifkúr;ak" fld<U^ rdcH NdId fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m%ldYk wxYh" 1939'

.=Kj¾Ok" ù' ã' tia‌' Y%S ,xld b;sydih fld<U^ r;ak fmd;a m%ldYlfhda" 2007'

m%kdkaÿ" wekagkS" kQ;k l%sia‌;shdksfha úúO YdLd yd uQ,O¾u" le,Ksh^ wka;¾ ixia‌lD;sl fmd;a m%ldYlfhda" 1994'

úf - ;=x." ví,sõ'tï'fla' Y%S ,dxflah b;sydih fj¿u ÈÈÈ" fld<U^ weï'ã'.=Kfiak iy iud.u" 2012'

úu,r;ak" fla' ã' Ô' ,la‌Èj ,kafoais m%h;akh kqf.af.dv^ iriú m%ldYlhda" 2014'

IajhsÜ‌i¾" ´,kao hq.fha fy<Èj" mß' frdayka fmdkakïfmreu" fld<U^ weï' ã' .=Kfiak iy iud.u" 1967'

y¾fmdaÜ‌" ´,kao hq.fha fy<Èj" mß' frdayka fmdkakïfmreu" fld<U^ weï' ã' .=Kfiak iy iud.u" 1967'

Yogasundram" Nath" History of Sri Lanka from
prehistoric Times to the Present" Colombo• Vijitha
Yapa Publications" 2010'