TODAY - Mon, Nov 19, 2018
ojfia mqj;a           ishu ojfia mqj;a
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l¿;r md,u wi< u,a wf,ú ie<l fj<|dfï ksr;j isá
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msys f.k,a,d ñßia f.k,a,d uqka wmsg fydfrka wU lkjdo okafka kE md&f
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´iag%ේ,shdfõ úlafgdaßhdkq m%dka; md¾,sfï
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újdyl ueÈúfha ldka;djla‌ iy ;reKshla‌ wiïu;
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wdKavq mlaIfha uka;%Sjreka l:dkdhl wiqk wdikakfha /§ isáñka m
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ñksiaiqkag lror lshk foaj,a fjkafka fkdys;mq fkdis;+ fj,djl lsõfjd
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ifrdacdiy mqxÑ iqrx.kdù iskud mg yryd furg l;dnyg ,lajQ mqxÑ
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msßñhl= id¾:l fyda wid¾:l jkafka Tyq msgqmi isá
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frdIdka ms,msáh jf.au Tyqf.a wdorKsh ìßoj;a oeka fndfyda fof
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ckm%sh rx.k Ys,ams” hqf¾ks fkdIsldf.a iSiSàù ù
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Time to buy Christmas Gifts

Christmas gifts are an integral part of the joyful celebration of Christmas. The gifts received from our friends and loved ones over the years make up some of the sweetest memories.

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,kafoais md,kfhka iudchg we;s jQ n,mEu
Aug 29, 2018 09:27 am   Views: 256

,kafoais md,kfhka iudchg we;s jQ n,mEu

fIydka ;s,lr;ak
fmardfoKsh úYajúoHd,h'

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l%s'j' 16 jeks ishjfika miq ,xld b;sydifha ola‌kg ,efnk úfYaI ,la‌IKh jkafka ta jk f;la‌ ,xldjg oeä f,i n,mEï l< bka§h n,mEu l%ula‌ l%ufhka myj heuhs' bkamiq ld,fha§ ,xldj" hqfrdamd cd;Skaf.a n,mEïj,g k;= ùu lemS fmfkk ,la‌IKhls' ta wkqj ms<sfj<ska mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais yd bx.%Sis hk ngysr cd;Skaf.a n,mEïj,g ,xldj k;= fõ' l%s'j' 14" 15" 16 ishjia‌j, hqfrdamfhys fldkaia‌a;ka;sfkdam,a k.rh uq,alr f.k bia‌,dï yd ls;= ne;su;=ka w;r hqoaO ud,djla‌ we;s úh' th l=rei hqoaOh kñka hqfrdamd b;sydifhys ye¢kafõ' tu hqoaOj,ska bia‌,dïjre ch.;a ksid hqfrdamShkag f.dvìñka fmrÈ. yd mej;s iïnkaO;d iSudiys;j fldkafoaisj,g hg;aj isÿlr .ekSug isÿúh' tksid hqfrdamShhka uqyqÿ ud¾. Tia‌fia fmrÈ. yd iïnkaO ùug W;aidy lf<ah' tys m%;sM,hla‌ f,iska l%s'j' 1498 § mD;=.Sis cd;sl jia‌fldao .dud bkaÈhdjg meñKsfha h' thska miqj fmrÈ. ngysr cd;Skag uqyqÿ ud¾.fhka újD; jQfõh'

fmrÈ. rgj,a w;ßka ngysr cd;Skaf.a wjOdkhg ,la‌ jQ úfYaI rgla‌ f,i ,xldj lemS fmfka' tksid fmrÈ. n,h ;yjqre lr .ekSfï ;r.hl fh§ isá ngysr cd;Skag ,xldj ;=< ish wdêm;Hh m;=rjd .ekSu b;d jeo.;a úh' ta wkqj mD;=.Siska tys ,d m<uqj l%shd l< w;r fojkqj ,kafoaiSka Bg W;aiql úh' fufia Tjqkaf.a wdêm;Hhkag ,xldj imqrdu k;= fkdjqK o furg uqyqÿnv m%foaY ish n,hg k;= lr .ekSug Tjqkag yels jQfha h' ,xldfõ uqyqÿnv m%foaY md,kh l< ,kafoaiSka f.ka furg ixia‌lD;shg t,a, jQ n,mEï /ils' foaYSh yqrejlg yev .eiS ;snQ furg iudc - ixia‌lD;sh ngysr cd;Skaf.a hg;aúð;lrKh;a iu.ska ngysrlrKhg ,la‌ jQ nj lsj yelsh' tys§ ,kafoais n,mEï m%Odk fõ' 21 jeks ishji jk úg;a ,xldj ;=< l%shd;aul jk kS;s rduqfõ moku f,i mj;skafka tod ,kafoaiSka y÷kajd ÿka kS;suh rduqj ùu Bg ksoiqkla‌ f,i oela‌úh yelsh' th kï frdau - ,kafoais kS;sh hs'

furg uqyqÿnv ,kafoais md,k ld,h f,i i,lkqfha l%s'j' 1640 - 1796 w;r ld,h hs' tu ld, jljdkqj w;r;=r§ Tjqkg isÿjQfha ;ukag fmr Y; j¾I 1 1$2 lg jeä ld,hla‌ ^l%s'j'1505 - 1640& ,xldfõ uqyqÿnv n,h w,a,d f.k isá mD;=.SiSka ;nd .sh iudÔh yd ixia‌lD;sl kIagdjfYaI u; ;u md,kh o f.k heug h' ,kafoaiSka hqfrdamSh ixia‌lD;shlg ysñlï lshk cd;shls' mD;=.SiSka o tfia h' tksid ,kafoaiSkag mD;=.SiSkag fuka iudc - ixia‌lD;suh jYfhka ;u md,k lghq;= yev.ia‌jd .ekSug wNsfhda.hka t,a, jQ njla‌ fkdfmfka' Tjqka isÿlf<a mD;=.SiSka wkq.ukh l< m%;sm;a;s w;ßka úhoï wvq fldg ,dN ,nd .; yels l%fudamdhka f;dard f.k tajd Tia‌fia ish m%;sm;a;s l%shd;aul lsÍuhs'

,xldfõ uqyqÿnv m%foaYj, l%shd;aul jQ mD;=.Sis md,kh uÛska Bg fmr furg l%shd;aul jQ foaYSh md,k jHqyh fjkia‌ fkdl< kuq;a frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.u je<`o fkd.;a uqo,sjreka yd mqoa.,hka Wiia‌ ;k;=rej,ska my lsÍu isÿ lf<a h' ta wkqj toji Wiia‌ ;k;=re ,nd .ekSug kï frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.ug ne£ ;sîu jeo.;a fldg i,ld ;sfí' furg iudcfha ta jkúg mej;s l=, l%uh imqrdu fjkia‌ fkdl< mD;=.SiSka ;u jdKsc wjYH;d i`oyd l=re`ÿ ;e,Sug wjYH jQ i,d.u l=,fha wh uÈ jQ úg lrdj" yqKq iy mÿ hk l=,j, ck;dj fhdod .ksñka Tjqkaf.a jD;Skaj, fjkila‌ we;s lf<ah' tfy;a tuÛska Tjqkaf.a iudc ;;a;ajh flfrys úYd, n,mEula‌ we;s fkdùh'

mD;=.SiSka úiska furg iudch ;=< ta jkúg frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.u ie,lsh hq;= uÜ‌gulska jHdma; fldg ;snqfKah' úfYaIfhkau frdaudkq lf;da,sl wd.u je<`o.;a my;a hEhs iïu; l=,j, ck;djg by< ;k;=re §fuka l=, l%uh hï n,mEulg ,la‌l< ksid m%Yak ygf.k ;sìKs' ;jo kj iudc ixl,am f,i tal Nd¾hhd újdyh" újdy ,shdmÈxÑh ksid nyq Nd¾h yd nyq mqreI fiajkh ke;sùu jeks wx. iudchg tla‌j ;sìKs' mD;=.Sis NdIdj o iudchg yqreù ;snqK ksid ,kafoais iudcfha§ tu NdIdj úúO lghq;= i`oyd fhdod .eKsks' úfYaIfhkau m,a,sfha foaj fufyhg fhdod.kq ,eîh'

mD;=.Sisyq furáka mkakd oud uqyqÿnv m%foaYj, n,h w,a,d .;a ,kafoaiSka j¾I 138 l ld,hla‌ ;u n,h mj;ajd f.k .sfha h' mD;=.Sis iuÛ iei£fï§ ,kafoaiSka hqoaO lsysmhlg muKla‌ fhduq jQ w;r Tjqka iEu úgu W;aiy lf<a úhoï wvq fldg f.k yels ;rï ,dN bmhSug h' mD;=.Siskag jvd l=vd m%foaYhl ish md,kh f.k .sh ,kafoaiSka furg frmrudÿ wd.u irK .sh l=vd m%cdjla‌ ;nd .sfhah' fn!oaO iudch m,a,sj,g hk iudchla‌ njg mßj¾;kh lsÍug W;aiy oerE ,kafoaiSka iudcfha újdy isÿlsÍï yd fn!;Sia‌uh ;=<ska foaYSh iudch ;=< fNao Nskak we;s lf<ah' foaYSh l=, l%uh m%fhdackhg .ekSfuka l=, w;r .egqï we;s flßKs' ñY% újdy je<ela‌ùug mshjr .kq ,eîh' iud.ug fiajdjla‌ ,nd.; yels l=, wkH l=, iuÛ újdy ùu j<ld,sks' i,d.u l=,h fuu kS;sÍ;sj,ska oeäj fmÆKq l=,hla‌ úh' l%sia‌;shdks wd.u je<`o.;a whg úfYaI jrm%ido ysñùu o ,kafoais iudc m%;sm;a;sh ;=< lemS fmfkkakg úh' fn!oaOhl= iu`. újdy jQ fyda újdy ùug isák whl= tlS újdyh wj,x.= lsÍu fyda iïnkaOh w;ayeßh hq;= úh' tfia fkdl< fyd;a th o`vqjï ,eìh yels jrola‌ úh' kuq;a l%sia‌;shdks jqjfyd;a thska ksoyia‌ úh yels úh' ,kafoaiSka lghq;= lf<a foaYSh fn!oAO iudch ,kafoaiSka is;k wdldrfhka l%sia‌;shdkSlrKh jQ iuc ixia‌lD;shla‌ f,i yev.eia‌iSug h'

,kafoais ñY% újdy uÛska we;s jQ ,kais fyj;a n¾. hk ck fldgia‌ ,kafoais ckmo msysgqùfï m%;sM,hla‌ f,i we;s úKs' fï wh mixtie," mestice iy toepassie ^ckjyfrys ;=mamys& hkqfjka o ye¢kajQy ^úf - ;=x." 216 msg&' ,kafoais iuh ;=< ,kafoais NdIdj l;d l< o th n%s;dkH iufha fojeks oYlfha§ Ndú; fkdflfrKs' kuq;a ,kafoais NdIdfjka fndfyda jpk isxy, NdIdjg tl;=j ;sfí' Bg ksoiqka lsysmhla‌ my; mßÈ oela‌úh yelsh'



 

lan



,dxlsl iudchg fudjqka È. l,siu yd È. ceflÜ‌gqj ^Jacker& y`ÿkajd ÿkafkah' msßñka kslfÜ l=vd fkrE /jq,la‌ j¾Okh lf<ah' ,kafoaiSka fiao frÈ wdkhkh l<y' oyy;ajeks Y; j¾Ifha§ uqo%s; rgd iys; lmq frÈ ckm%sh úh ^úu,r;ak" 122 msgqj&' ,kafoais iudch ;=< wdNrK me<£u by< iudcfha ldka;djkag muKla‌ iSud ù ;sî we;' ta nj kd;a fhda.iqkaorï uy;d Tyqf.a lD;sh ;=< fufia úia‌;r fldg we;' The Dutch also regulated the way in
which natives dressed and adorned themselves at
their feasts' Only higher caste women were entitled to
wear jewellery on these occasions'˜ ^Yogasundram"
202 page&

,kafoaiSkaf.a iudc m%;am;a;sh ;=<ska my;rg isxy, yd Wvrg isxy, fNaoh ;j;a j¾Okh jQ nj fmfka' tkï mD;=.Sis md,k iuh ;=< furg uqyqÿnv m%foaYj, mD;=.Sis isß;a úß;a iïm%odhka jHdma; ùu ksid my;rg isxy, ck;dj mD;=.SiSka iu`. iïñY%Kh úh' tksid Tjqka my;a msßila‌ fia ie,lSug Wv/áfhda fm<UqKy' Wv/áhka mD;=.SiSka iu`. iïñY%Kh fkdù foaYSh Ñrd.; iïm%odhka wdrla‌Id lr .ekSug iu;aùu ksid Tjqka ta ms<sn`oj l=, .¾jhlska Wiia‌ cd;shla‌ jYfhka is;Sug fm<ö isáfha h' mD;=.SiSkaf.ka wk;=rej ,kafoaiSkag my;rg uqyqÿnv m%foaY k;= jQ ksid Tjqkaf.a iïm%odhka o my;rg me;sÍ heu fya;=fjka Wvrg my;rg isxy, fNaoh ;jÿrg;a j¾Okh jQ nj meyeÈ,sh'

,kafoaiSkaf.a wd.ñl m%;sm;a;sfhka we;s jQ iudc n,mEu

wdishdjg meñKs uq,au hqfrdamd cd;sh jQ mD;=.SiSkaf.a wruqK l%s'j' 1498 § jia‌flda o .dud bkaÈhdfõ le,slÜ‌ jrdhg f.dvng úg lrk ,oehs oela‌fjk ,wms l%sia‌;shdkSka iy l=¿nvq fidhd meñKsfhuq, hk ft;sydisl m%ldYkfhka meyeÈ,s fõ' ta wkqj mD;=.SiSka wd.ñl wNs,dIhla‌ o fmroeßj fmrÈ.g meñKs njla‌ fmfka' fojkqj wdishdjg msúis ,kafoaiSka o fjf<dao wdêm;H ;uka i;= lr.ekSfï wruqK uq,g ;nd wd.ñl m%;sm;a;sh o l%shd;aul lf<ah' ,fï wkqj fuu fomla‌Ihgu yiq jQ ,dxlsl ck;dj mD;=.SiSkaf.a lf;da,sl wOdk.%dyS;ajhg;a ^Biotry&" ,kafoaiSkaf.a le,aúkajd§ Ofudakaudohg;a ^Fanatism& yiq ù .shy,' ^úu,r;ak" 105 msgqj&

mD;=.SiSkag jvd ,kafoaiSka lf;da,sl - fn!oaO - yskaÿ yd bia‌,dï wd.ïj,g iykYS,S m%;am;a;shla‌ wkq.ukh l< nj fndfyda b;sydi{hkaf.a u;h úh' kuq;a tu wdl,amh jerÈ njg fy<s lf<a uydpd¾ fla' ví,sõ' .=Kj¾Ok uy;d 1990 § l< úYsIag m¾fhaIKh yryd h' ,kafoaiSka lf;da,sl - fn!oaO - yskaÿ yd bia‌,dï wd.ï u¾okh tla‌ l%shdud¾.hla‌ fldg .;af;ah' fï w;ßka jvd;a Wkkaÿ jQfha lf;da,sl wd.u u¾okh lsÍug h' frmrudÿ wd.u jHdma; lsÍug jvd ,kafoAiSka Wkkaÿ jQfha lf;da,sl wd.u u¾okh lsÍug nj fmfka' lf;da,sl wd.u woykakkaf.a .Kk 250"000 la‌ muK hEhs .Kka n,d ;sìKs' m<uqfjkau jerÈ úYajdihla‌ jYfhka i,lk ,o lf;da,sl wd.fuka Tjqkaj uqodf.k ixfYdaê; ksjerÈ wd.ug Tjqka yrjd .ekSfï ia‌jNdúl wdYdjla‌ ,kafoaiSka ;=< mej;sK' ^wßir;akï" 222 msgqj&' l%s'j' 1658 mkjk ,o kS;shlska lf;da,sl mQclhl=g /ljrKh §u " ur”h oKa‌vkh Èh yels jrola‌ njg m%ldY lrk ,§' 1715 mkjk ,o kS;shlska lf;da,slhkag m%isoaêfha fyda ryfia /ia‌ùï meje;aúh fkdyels úh' 1799 furg isá ,kafoais wdKa‌vqldrhd jQ jEkaÍ m%ldY lf<a furg lf;da,sl foajia‌:dk jkid ouk f,i;a tajdfha isák lf;da,slhkag YqoaO jQ frmrudÿ oyu fj;g meñfKk f,i h' uqia‌,sïjrekag o oeä m%;sm;a;shla‌ ,kafoaiSka wkq.ukh lf<ah' fn!oaO" yskaÿ wd.ïj,g o úreoaO m%;sm;a;shla‌ ,kafoaiSka oeÍh' kuq;a th lf;da,sl yd uqia‌,sï wd.ï flfrys oela‌jQ úreoaO;ajh ;rï oeä tlla‌ fkdúKs' 1692 § le,Ksfha fn!oaO W;aij ;ykï lrk ,§' 1732 § m%;sud jkaokh yd ñ;Hd oDIaál mQcd úê ;ykï lf<ah' 1711 § mek jQ kS;shla‌ u`.ska yskaÿ mqo isß;a wkq.ukh lsÍu ;ykï úh' tfy;a fuu ksfhda.h m%dfhda.sl jYfhka id¾:l fkdùh' ^úf - ;=x." 225 msgqj&' 1767 iema;eïn¾ 15 jeks Èk ,kafoais wdKa‌vqldr µka o fuhsvka ksfhda.hla‌ ksl=;a lrñka m%ldY lf<a bßod Èkj,§ o l%sia‌;shdks W;aij Èkj,§ o fjf<daodï lsÍu" l¾udka; lsÍu fyda l=,S jev lsÍu ;ykï njhs' tfia fhÿKq whg ov f.ùu fyda isrf.g hEùu kshu flßKs'

thska ,kafoaiSka wfmala‌Id lf<a fn!oaOhkaf.a fmdah Èkh wd.ñl ksjdvq Èkhla‌ f,i fkdms<s.ekSuhs' ;j o ls;=Kqjl=g muKla‌ bvï m%Odk ,nd.; yels njg;a" jyÆka o ñ,§ f.k ;nd.; yels njg;a ksfhda. ,ndÿKs'

,ta yer" 1676 Tla‌f;dïn¾ ui 16 jeks Èk l< ksfhda.hla‌ wkqj" fm!oa.,sl Kh fkdf.jQ l%sia‌;shdks fkdjQ ia‌;%Ska muKla‌ udxpq oud ismsß f.hs ;eìh yels nj m%ldY úKs ud;r Èia‌;%sla‌lfha jdih l< fn!oaOhkaf.ka muKla‌ ,urd< noao, ^l%sia‌;shdks fkdjQ whl= u< úg Tjqkf.a foam<j,ska 1$3 l noao& wh flßKs' fn!oaOhl= ;u orejd fn!;Sia‌u fkdl< fyd;a tu orejd wjcd;lhl= f,i ie,lSu o foudmshka ls;=kqjka f,i újdy ù fkdue;af;a kï" fyda wju jYfhka foudmshkaf.ka tla‌ whl= fyda ;uka ls;=kqjl= njg Èjqrd ke;s úfgl fyda orejd fn!;sia‌u l< fkdyels njg o ksfhda. mekùh,' ^úu,r;ak" 108 - 109 msgq&'

wOHdmkh o ,kafoais wd.ñl m%;sm;a;sfha w;fldÆjla‌ úh' .ï lsysmhlg frmrudÿ mdi, ne.ska we;s lrk ,§' úIh ud,djg frmrudÿ oyu wksjd¾h úh' fndfyda .=rejre foaj.e;sjre jQy' furg uqyqÿnv l,dmfha ´,kao iufha we;s lr ;snQ fuu mdGYd,d ms<sn|j tÉ' ví,sõ' fldâßkagka ish fmdf;ys ukd jQ ye¢kaùula‌ fufia isÿlr we;' ,.ïno mdGYd,dj, m%Odk jYfhka W.kajk ,oafoa l%sia‌;shdks O¾uh ms<sn| m%Yafkda;a;r yd hdÉ[d .S; o ia‌jNdIdfjka ,sùu yd lshEùu o fõ' yeu mdGYd,djlgu mdfya .=rejreka fofokl=g yd y;r fokl=g w;r .Kkla‌ o mdGYd,d oyhlg tl l;Sfiarejrhl= o ne.ska m;alr ;snqfKa h' ta mdGYd,d ish,a, mßmd,kh lrk ,oafoa mdGYd,d fldñiu ^Scholarchal Commission& kï uKa‌v,fhks''''1788 § l,amsáhg;a fnkaf;dgg;a w;r m%foaYfha ;snqK mdGYd,d .Kk mkia‌ myls' ^fldâßxgka" 157 msgqj&

uqo%Kfha wdOdrh o ,kafoaiSyq wd.u m%pdrhg Wmfhda.S lr .;ay' 1758 jkúg ia‌jNdIdjkaf.ka úúO fmd;a m%pdrh lrk ,§' Bg isxy, hdÉ[d ix.%yhla‌ o o%úv hdÉ[d ix.%yhla‌ o isxy, yd o%úv niska ksl=;a l< kj f;ia‌;fïka;=j o we;=<;a úh' fï yer ,kafoaiSyq hdmkh" .d,a, yd wÆ;a lvh m%foaYj, ,kafoais .Dy ks¾udKhg wkqj frmrudÿ foajia‌:dk bÈl<y' frmrudÿ oyu wÆ;ska je<|.;a whg f,!lsl jrm%ido ,ndÿkay' Tjqkaj úúO Wiia‌ ;k;=rej,g m;a lrk ,§' ta yer iudc fiajd lrk wáfhka o Tjqka wd.u m;=rjd yßk ,§' wkd: orejka i|yd we;s l< uvï o ,dÿre frda.Skag we;s l< ffjoHd.dr wdÈh wd.u m%pdrh lsÍfï udOHhka úh'

mD;=.SiSkaf.a yd ,kafoaiSkaf.a wd.ï w;r we;s fjki

,xldfõ hg;aúð; iuh i,ld ne,Sfï§ furgg meñKs mD;=.SiSka frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyu uq,a lr.;a msßila‌ jQ w;r ,kafoaiSka" m%;sixia‌lrKh jQ frmrudÿ kï kj l%sia‌;shdksh uq,alr .;a cd;shla‌ úh' frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyfï mdma;=ud hkqfjka y÷kajk frdaufha isák w.% kdhl mQcl;=ukaf.a O¾u WmfoaYl;ajh yd wdêm;Hh ms<s.;af;ah' frmrudÿ oyfuys mdma;=udf.a O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh ms<sfkd.kshs'

lf;da,sl oyfï mdma;=ud iuia‌; lf;da,sl f,dalfhau md,k kdhlhd fõ' ìfIdmajre Bg my<ska isá w;r Tjqka Èid md,l Èidm;sjreka úh' Èid md,kh id¾:l lr .ekSug yeu Èidjla‌u l=vd m;a;= fyda jiïj,g fnod ìfIdma;=udf.a wKil hgf;a tajd md,kh lsÍug n%yaupdÍ mQcl msßila‌ o úh' úúO O¾ufoaYl yd iudc fiajd lghq;=j,§ mQcljrekag w;ys; fok meúÈjre rdYshla‌ o lf;da,sl oyfuys isáhy' wjidk jYfhka yeu wd.ñl lghq;a;l§ u mQcl mla‌Ihg wjk; ùu ;u wd.ñl Nla‌;sfha wksjd¾hh wx.hla‌ f,i ie,l+ .sys msßila‌ o fõ' fï wdldrfhka frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyfï wka;¾.;h y÷kd.; yelsh'

lf;da,sl iNdj ;=< 16 jeks ishjfia § isÿ jQ uyd folv ùu fya;=fjka wÆf;ka ìys jQ l%sia‌;shdksh frmrudÿ l%sia‌;shdksh hkqfjka ye¢kafõ ^m%kdkaÿ" 43 msgqj&' lf;da,sl iNdj md,kh l< mdma;=udf.a O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh m%;sla‌fIam lsÍu yd tys m%;sixia‌lrKj§Ndjh fuu oyfuys wka;¾.; úh' ;;ald,Sk frdaudkq iNdj uq,ald,Sk l%sia‌;shdksfhka wE;a ù fkdu`.g yeÍ ;snQ ksid th uq,ald,Sk ia‌rEmhg .ekSu frmrudÿ oyfï wruqK jQfõh' fï oyu ìys lsÍug udáka ¨;¾ kï c¾uka cd;sl mQcljrhd uq,a úh' frmrudÿ l%sia‌;shdksfha m%Odk ,la‌IKh jkafka tys we;=<;a úúO;ajhhs' frdaudkq oyug jvd fuys nyq ksldhslNdjhla‌ ola‌kg ,efí' wdOHd;añl ia‌jdëk;ajh fiùu frmrudÿ ne;su;=kaf.a m%Odk wruqK fõ' tys§ Tjqka mdma;=udf.a O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh fjkqjg nhsn,fha O¾fudamfoaYl wdêm;Hh msysgqjd .;af;ah'

foaY.fõIK jHdmdrh weröu;a iu`. mdmajre lf;da,sl rdcHhka Bg Wkkaÿ lrjd frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyu m%pdrKhg W;aiql jQy' tys m%;sM,hla‌ f,iska mD;=.SiSka fmrÈ.g meñ”u ksid ,xldj we;=¿ fmrÈ. f,dalhg lf;da,sl oyu y÷kajdÿks' miqld,Skj foaY.fõIKhg tla‌ jQ ,kafoaiSka o fjf<|du uQ,sl fldgf.k n,h w,a,d .kakd rgj, ;ukaf.a kj wd.ñl o¾Ykhla‌ jQ frmrudÿ oyu jHdma; lsÍug hqyqiq¿ úh' ta wkqj ,xldj ;=< ,kafoais iufha§ ´,kao frmrudÿ iNdj" fm%ia‌ìfÜßhdkq iNdj yd ia‌fldÜ‌,ka; iNdj kñka frmrudÿ wd.ñl iNd we;s úh' ,kafoaiSka ;=< oeä lf;da,sl úfrdaë wdl,am mej;s fyhska Tjqka yeu úgu W;aidy lf<a frdaudkq lf;da,sl oyu wNsNjd frmrudÿ l%sia‌;shdksh yels ;rï m%pdrh lsÍug h'

,kafoaiSkaf.a wd¾:sl m%;sm;a;sfhka jQ iudc n,mEu

furg uqyqÿnv ,kafoais md,k ld,fha§ ù j.djg wu;rj fjf<| fnda. j.djka .ek o ;rul wjOdkhla‌ fhduq ù we;' mD;=.Sis iufha§ jhU yd W;=re È. m%foaYj,g y÷kajd ÿka ÿïfld< j.dj ,kafoaiSka hgf;a ÈhqKq úh' hdmkfha o jeo.;a j.djla‌ f,iska ÿïfld< jeùu wdrïN flßKs' fuu ÿïfld< g%ejkafldrhg ks¾hd; l< w;r" 18 jeks ishji wjidkfha§ u,hdj yd iqud;%dfõ ukd b,aÆula‌ we;s úh' iud.u ÿïfld< i|yd ks¾hd; noaola‌ mekùh ^úf - ;=x." 203 msgqj&' u[af[dla‌ld j.dj o mq¿,a jYfhka jHdma; lrk ,ÿfha ,kafoaiSka h' u,afnß j.dj iy mgmKqjka we;s lsÍu m<uqfjkau ,xldjg y÷kajd fokq ,enqfõ o ,kafoaiSka úisks' tfy;a fiao l¾udka;h t;rï id¾:l jQ njla‌ fkdfmfka'

taldêldÍ wmkhk fnda.hla‌ jYfhka ,kafoaiSka fldams j.dj o wdrïN lrk ,§' 1748 - 49 jirj,ays furg fldams ksIamdokh rd;a;,a 198904 la‌ jQ w;r" th 1755 - 56 jirj,ays § r;a;,a 592250 la‌ ola‌jd by< ke.af.ah ^úf - ;=x." 201 msgqj&' .ïñßia‌ j.dlsÍug ,kafoaiSka wdl¾YkSh f,i m%pdrKhla‌ isÿ lf<ah' fmd,a j.djg o Wkkaÿjla‌ ola‌jd we;' fld<U" ó.uqj wjg fmd,a j.dj ÈhqKq lrk ,§' fmd,a .ia‌ ue§u" wrla‌l= ksIamdok flfrys o wjOdkh fhduq úh'

,,xldfõ jefjk l=re`ÿ" b;d Wiia‌ udye`.s ;;a;ajfha tajd jQ w;r" fjk;a j¾.fha l=re`ÿj,g jvd wvq jYfhka ;=ka .=Khlska ñ, jeä h,' hkqfjka ,skaia‌fpdaka kue;a;d m%ldY fldg ;sfí' ta ,kafoaiSka l=¿nvq jefjk m%foaYj,g ;ukau f.dia‌ tajd ,nd .ekSu i|yd Wkkaÿjla‌ oela‌ùug mgka.;a wjêfha§ h ^wßir;akï" 185 msgqj&' µe,ala‌ wdKa‌vqldrhdf.a ld,fha§ l=re`ÿ jeùug Wkkaÿ úh' fï;dla‌ mej;s úYajdih jQfha lef,a bfí yg.kakd l=re`ÿ jvd w.kd njhs' tfy;a mÍla‌IK meje;a ù fuka jjd .kakd l=re`ÿ jvd w.kd nj jegysKs' µe,ala‌ wdKa‌vqldrhdf.a kshuh mßÈ 1769 § urodfka l=re`ÿ jeùu m%:ufhka mgka .;af;a h' fuys m%;sM,h i;=gqodhl jQfhka fjk;a m%foaYj, o l=re`ÿ jeùu wdrïN úh' l=re`ÿ ms<sn| ;on, kS;s o mkjk ,§' l=re`ÿ me<hla‌ msgrg hEùu .s,av¾ia‌ 1000 l ovhlg hg;a l< yels jrola‌ úh' l=re`ÿ .ia‌ úkdY lsÍu o`vqju urKh úh' l=re`ÿ j.dj Èß .ekaùug ia‌j¾K uqo%sldj kue;s iïudkhla‌ o msßkuk ,§' i,amsá fldarf,a iurisxy uqo,s tfia ia‌j¾K uqo%sldj ,nd.;a j.dlrefjls' ^.=Kj¾Ok" 190 msgqj&' l=re`ÿ ;e,Sug i,d.u l=,h fhdod f.k we;' iEu Yla‌;su;a i,d.u ;reKfhla‌u l=re`ÿ frdí 12 la‌ ,kafoaiSkag iemhsh hq;= úh' kuq;a ta i|yd Tjqkg lsisÿ .dia‌;=jla‌ fkdf.ùh' frdí tlla‌ hkq idudkHfhka rd;a;,a 56 g;a 62 g;a w;r m%udKhls ^,kafoais ñkqï l%uhg wkqj& ^wßir;akï" 189 msgqj&'

,kafoaiSka ù j.djg o úfYaI wjOdkhla‌ fhduq lr ;sfí' ,DUTCH POWER IN CEYLON, kue;s .%ka:fha wdpd¾h iskakmamd wßir;akï uy;d ,kafoaiSkaf.a lDIsl¾u m%;sm;a;sh l%shdjg k`.k ,o wdldrh .ek È.= úu¾Ykhla‌ lr ;sfí' tys fmkajd§ we;s mßÈ ,kafoaiS fyajdhka iy ,kafoaiSkaf.a wdrla‌Idj hgf;a jQ ck;dj i|yd úYd, m%udKfhka fnx.d,fhka o fldruekav,a fjr< wdY%s; m%foaYfhka o lekrd m%foaYfhka o iy,a f.kaùug isÿjQ ksid ,kafoaiSka úiska ù f.dú;ekg m%uqL;ajhla‌ fok ,§' 1658 ka miqj µkayQkaia‌ o ù f.dú;ekg Wkkaÿ úh'

,kafoaiSka hdmkfha lmq j.dj l%udkql+,j werUQy' ol=Kq bkaÈhdfjka frÈ úhkakka f.kajd uvl,mqj" ukakdru yd mq;a;,u hk m%foaYj, frÈ úùu jHdma; lf<ah' i;afldar<fhka yd l,dúfhka fï i|yd wjYH lmq mq¿ka ,nd .;af;a h' ^úf - ;=x." 200 msgqj&' 1746 § fjf<|fmd< mokï jQ m%;sm;a;shla‌ wkq.ukh lrñka ,kafoaiSka uq;= lsñ§u fjkafoais lsÍug ;SrKh lf<ah' 1746 - 1751 ola‌jd ld,h ;=< j.lSulska iy wjodkulska f;drj uq;=j,ska úYd, ,dNhla‌ ,eìK'

,fuu Èjhskg kqÿßka uqyqfoa msysá ukakdru uq;= mrh È.ska ie;mqï 20 la‌ muK o m<,ska ie;mqï 2 la‌ muK o fõ' fuh nU 10 la‌ muK .eUqrh' ful, fuu uq;= mrh ,kafoaiSkag wh;aj ;snqfKah' uq;= lsñfok ld,h meñKs úg wi, rgj, rcjreka yd fjf<kafoda o uq;= ñ,§ ,nd .ekSu i|yd fuys meñfK;s''''uq;= mrfhka lvd .kakd ,o uq;= fn,a,ka fjrf<a f.dv .eiQ miq m;d. tllg fn,a,ka 800 .Kfka úl=Kkq ,efí,' ^IajhsÜ‌i¾" 151 msgqj&

l=re`ÿj,g fukau w,s we;=ka fjf<odu o ;ukaf.a taldêldrhla‌ f,iska ,kafoaiSka ;nd .;ay' w,s we;=ka fjf<|du i|yd hdmkh" .d,a," ukakdru hk ia‌:dkj, fjf<|fmd<j,a ;sìKs' w,s we;=ka fjf<|dfuka ,kafoaiSka ,o ,dNh ms<sn|j ixLHd.; jd¾Isl jd¾;d mjd ola‌jñka bkaÈhdj ;=< furg we;=ka i|yd úYd, b,aÆula‌ mej;s nj;a ,kafoaiSka jeäu wdodhula‌ ,nkakg we;=ka fjf<|d fuka iu;a jQ nj;a wßir;akï uy;d ish fmdf;ys i|yka lr we;' ^wßir;akï" 153 msgqj&' furg§ ,kafoaiSka isÿl< w,s we;=ka fjf<|du ms<sn|j y¾fmdaÜ‌f.a ,xld úia‌;rfhys o fufia oela‌fõ'

,furg j,a w,skaf.ka .ykh''''úYd, f,i w,a,d .kq ,nk fuu i;a;= m¾ishdj iy fjk;a rgj,g úl=Kkq ,efn;a''''1666 j¾Ifha § wmf.a woañrd,a ;ekf.a ksfhda.h mßÈ rg jeishkaf.a wOdrh o we;sj wm úiska we;a .d,lska w,s 96 fofkla‌ w,a,d .kakd ,oy'''',xldfõ we;a;= fjk;a rgj,g f.k .sh l, trgj, we;a;= Wkag ìh fj;s,' ^y¾fmdaÜ‌" 106 msgqj& fï wkqj ,kafoais iufha§ furg w,s we;=ka fjf<|dug ;snQ m%isoaêh ms<sn|j jgyd .; yelsh'

;ukaf.a md,kh hgf;a jk bvïj,ska Wmßu ksIamdokhla‌ ,nd ,dN bmhSug;a" jeishd úiska iud.ug l< hq;= wksjd¾h fiajh ,nd .ekSug;a ,kafoaiSka bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍfï l%uhla‌ mgka .;af;ah' 1675 wfm%A,a ui µka yQkaia‌ ^lksIaG& wdKa‌vqlre o 1740 nerka µka bïfydma wdKa‌vqlre o bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍug lghq;= fh§h' fuys§ mD;=.Sis ld,fha mgka mej;s ,f;daïnq, hkqfjka ye¢ka jQ f,aLk úêu;aj ieliSu woyia‌ flßK' µka fyd,kia‌ wdKa‌vqlre 1745 Tla‌f;daïn¾ 15 od hdkafY%dhsv¾ wdKa‌vqlre foieïn¾ 20 o úf,ïµ,ala‌ wdKa‌vqlre 1766 iema;eïn¾ 05 o f;daïnq ieliSfï kS;sÍ;s iy l%shdj,sh oeälr we;' bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍu ;=<ska wjir we;sj j.d l< bvïj,ska 1$3 noaola‌ o wkjirfhka j.d l< bvïj,ska 1$2 l noaola‌ o wh flßK' fï w;r j;= noao kñka kj noaola‌ o fmd,a" mqjla‌ iy fldia‌ j.d l< bvïj,ska wh flßKs' bvï ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍu uyck;djg mSvdldÍ jQ nj 1760 § iud.ug úreoaOj le/,a,la‌ ygf.k .d,af,a bvï ld¾hd,h" mdi,a yd ;dkdhï .skan;a lsÍfuka fmfka' ,kafoaiSkaf.a wd¾:slh foi ne,Sfï§ Tjqka jeä jYfhka ck;dj mSvdjg m;a lrñka úúOdldrfha nÿ wh l< nj fmfka' ta Tjqkf.a m%Odk wruqK jQ ,dN Wmhd .ekSfï mrud¾:h uqÿkamuqKqjd .ekSu i|ydh' fï wkqj ,kafoaiSkaf.a wd¾:sl m%;sm;a;sh yryd furg w;S; rc oji jQ ia‌jhxfmdaIs; wd¾:sl rgdj ì| jeà wdkhk wmkhk wd¾:sl rgdjlg wjYHjk moku ia‌:djrj iudch ;=< tu hq.fha § ks¾udKh jQfõh'

fï wdldrhg ,xld b;sydifhys jeo.;a mßÉfþohla‌ jk ,kafoais ,xld uqyqÿnv m%foaY md,k ld,h ;=<ska Tjqkaf.a iudc m%;sm;a;sh;a thska ,xld iudchg we;s jQ n,mEu ms<sn|j;a iy Tjqkaf.ka ,o odhdo ms<sn`oj;a fndfyda lreKq idlÉPdjg n`ÿka l< yelsh' ta ta mqoa.,hka fy<k oDIaáfldaK u; furgg meñKs hqfrdamd cd;Skaf.ka ,o odhdohkays hym;a yd whym;a nj wvq jeä fldg idlÉPd lsÍu isÿl< yelsh' by; ola‌jd we;s f;dr;=re wkqj ,kafoais md,k ld,h foi ne¨ úg iuia‌;hla‌ jYfhka tu wjêfha§ furgg iEfyk ;rï iudcuh n,mEï ,enqK njg meyeÈ,s fõ'

wdY%s; .%ka: kdudj,sh

wßir;akï" tia‌' ,xldfõ ,kafoais n,h fld<U^ wOHdmk m%ldYk fomd¾;fïka;=j" 1964'

fldâßxgka' tÉ' ví,sõ' ixla‍Isma; ,xld b;sydih" mß' fla' tia‌' fifkúr;ak" fld<U^ rdcH NdId fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m%ldYk wxYh" 1939'

.=Kj¾Ok" ù' ã' tia‌' Y%S ,xld b;sydih fld<U^ r;ak fmd;a m%ldYlfhda" 2007'

m%kdkaÿ" wekagkS" kQ;k l%sia‌;shdksfha úúO YdLd yd uQ,O¾u" le,Ksh^ wka;¾ ixia‌lD;sl fmd;a m%ldYlfhda" 1994'

úf - ;=x." ví,sõ'tï'fla' Y%S ,dxflah b;sydih fj¿u ÈÈÈ" fld<U^ weï'ã'.=Kfiak iy iud.u" 2012'

úu,r;ak" fla' ã' Ô' ,la‌Èj ,kafoais m%h;akh kqf.af.dv^ iriú m%ldYlhda" 2014'

IajhsÜ‌i¾" ´,kao hq.fha fy<Èj" mß' frdayka fmdkakïfmreu" fld<U^ weï' ã' .=Kfiak iy iud.u" 1967'

y¾fmdaÜ‌" ´,kao hq.fha fy<Èj" mß' frdayka fmdkakïfmreu" fld<U^ weï' ã' .=Kfiak iy iud.u" 1967'

Yogasundram" Nath" History of Sri Lanka from
prehistoric Times to the Present" Colombo• Vijitha
Yapa Publications" 2010'